Bataille de Granson, 2 mars 1476

Bataille de Granson, 2 mars 1476

Bataille de Granson, 2 mars 1476

Victoire suisse sur les forces d'invasion de Charles le Rash, duc de Bourgogne. Charles avait rassemblé une armée multinationale, avec des éléments de Bourgogne même, d'Allemagne, d'Italie, de Flandre et d'Angleterre. Les Suisses ont donné à Charles l'avantage tactique ce jour-là, mais ont quand même gagné la bataille. L'avant-garde suisse avait devancé le gros de l'armée et rencontra Charles seul. Après l'échec de deux attaques de cavalerie contre eux, Charles ordonna à son infanterie de déborder les Suisses, le petit-fils de la ligne reculant, tandis que les ailes frappaient les Suisses sur le côté. À ce stade, le gros de l'armée suisse est apparu. Les ailes bourguignonnes voient le recul du centre bourguignon et l'arrivée des renforts suisses, et fuient rapidement le champ de bataille, avant même que les nouvelles troupes suisses n'atteignent la bataille. Charles a perdu son artillerie et le contenu de son camp aux mains des Suisses, mais en raison de la nature rapide de l'effondrement de son armée, il a subi peu de pertes.

Chronologie de l'histoire militaire de 1401 à 1600

L'histoire militaire des années 1400 et 1500 était pleine de batailles dans la guerre de Cent Ans entre la France et l'Angleterre et a été marquée par la vie et la mort de Jeanne d'Arc. Ce morceau d'histoire a vu la chute de l'Empire byzantin, le résultat final des guerres anglaises des roses, de la guerre de quatre-vingts ans, de la guerre de trente ans et de la guerre de neuf ans, parmi de nombreux autres conflits sanglants.


Aujourd'hui dans l'histoire – 2 mars

537 – Siège de Rome : L'armée ostrogoth sous le roi Vitiges commence le siège de la capitale. Bélisaire mène une action retardatrice à l'extérieur de la porte Flaminian, lui et un détachement de ses Bucellarii sont presque coupés.

986 – Louis V devient roi des Francs.

1121 – Dirk VI devient comte de Hollande.

1127 – Assassinat de Charles le Bon, comte de Flandre.

1444 - Skanderbeg organise un groupe de nobles albanais pour former la Ligue de Lezhë.

1458 – Georges de Poděbrady est choisi comme roi de Bohême.

1476 – Guerres de Bourgogne : l'ancienne Confédération suisse remet à Charles le Téméraire, duc de Bourgogne, une défaite majeure à la bataille de Grandson dans le canton de Neuchâtel.

1484 – Le College of Arms est officiellement incorporé par une charte royale signée par le roi Richard III d'Angleterre.

1498 – La flotte de Vasco de Gama visite l'île de Mozambique.

1561 – Mendoza, Argentine est fondée par le conquistador espagnol Pedro del Castillo.

1657 - Grand Incendie de Meireki : Un incendie à Edo (aujourd'hui Tokyo), au Japon, a fait plus de 100 000 morts et a duré trois jours

1717 – Les Amours de Mars et de Vénus est le premier ballet joué en Angleterre.

1776 – Guerre d'indépendance des États-Unis : des unités de la milice patriote arrêtent le gouverneur royal de Géorgie James Wright et tentent d'empêcher la capture de navires de ravitaillement lors de la bataille des bateaux de riz.

1791 – Les communications à longue distance s'accélèrent avec l'inauguration d'une machine à sémaphore à Paris.

1797 – La Banque d'Angleterre émet les premiers billets d'une livre et de deux livres.

1807 – Le Congrès américain adopte la loi interdisant l'importation d'esclaves, interdisant l'importation de nouveaux esclaves dans le pays.

1808 – La réunion inaugurale de la Wernerian Natural History Society, une ancienne société savante écossaise, se tient à Édimbourg.

1811 – Guerre d'indépendance de l'Argentine : une flotte royaliste bat une petite flottille de navires révolutionnaires lors de la bataille de San Nicolás sur la rivière Plate.

1815 – Signature du traité de la Convention de Kandy par les envahisseurs britanniques et les dirigeants du royaume de Kandy.

1825 – Roberto Cofresí, l'un des derniers pirates des Caraïbes à avoir réussi, est vaincu au combat et capturé par les autorités.

1836 – Révolution du Texas : Déclaration d'indépendance de la République du Texas vis-à-vis du Mexique.

1855 – Alexandre II devient tsar de Russie.

1865 – Guerre du Cap Est : l'incident de Völkner en Nouvelle-Zélande.

1867 – Le Congrès américain adopte le premier Reconstruction Act.

1877 - Élection présidentielle américaine de 1876 : deux jours seulement avant l'inauguration, le Congrès américain déclare Rutherford B. Hayes vainqueur de l'élection, même si Samuel J. Tilden avait remporté le vote populaire le 7 novembre 1876.

1882 – La reine Victoria échappe de peu à une tentative d'assassinat par Roderick McLean à Windsor.

1885 – Guerre sino-française : victoire française à la bataille de Hòa Mộc près de Tuyên Quang, au nord du Vietnam.

1901 – La United States Steel Corporation est fondée à la suite d'une fusion entre Carnegie Steel Company et Federal Steel Company, qui est devenue la première société au monde avec un capital boursier de plus d'un milliard de dollars.

1901 – Le Congrès américain adopte l'amendement Platt limitant l'autonomie de Cuba, comme condition du retrait des troupes américaines.

1903 – À New York, le Martha Washington Hotel ouvre ses portes, devenant le premier hôtel exclusivement réservé aux femmes.

1917 - La promulgation de la loi Jones-Shafroth accorde aux Portoricains la citoyenneté américaine.

1919 – La première Internationale Communiste se réunit à Moscou.

1933 – Ouverture du film King Kong au Radio City Music Hall de New York.

1937 – Le comité d'organisation des travailleurs de l'acier signe une convention collective avec U.S. Steel, menant à la syndicalisation de l'industrie sidérurgique des États-Unis.

1939 – Le cardinal Eugenio Pacelli est élu pape et prend le nom de Pie XII.

1941 – Seconde Guerre mondiale : les premières unités militaires allemandes entrent en Bulgarie après son adhésion au Pacte de l'Axe.

1943 – Seconde Guerre mondiale : Bataille de la mer de Bismarck : les forces américaines et australiennes coulent des convois japonais.

1949 – Le capitaine James Gallagher fait atterrir son B-50 Superfortress Lucky Lady II à Fort Worth, au Texas, après avoir effectué le premier vol sans escale autour du monde en avion en 94 heures et une minute.

1949 – Le premier lampadaire automatique est installé à New Milford, Connecticut.

1955 – Norodom Sihanouk, roi du Cambodge, abdique le trône en faveur de son père, Norodom Suramarit.

1956 – Le Maroc obtient son indépendance de la France.

1962 – En Birmanie, l'armée dirigée par le général Ne Win prend le pouvoir lors d'un coup d'État.

1962 – Wilt Chamberlain établit le record de buts en un match de la National Basketball Association en marquant 100 points.

1965 – Les forces aériennes américaines et sud-vietnamiennes lancent l'opération Rolling Thunder, une campagne de bombardements soutenus contre le Nord-Vietnam.

1969 – À Toulouse, en France, le premier vol d'essai du Concorde anglo-français est effectué.

1969 - Les forces soviétiques et chinoises s'affrontent à un avant-poste frontalier sur la rivière Ussuri.

1970 – La Rhodésie se déclare république, rompant ses derniers liens avec la couronne britannique.

1972 – La sonde spatiale Pioneer 10 est lancée depuis Cap Canaveral, en Floride, avec pour mission d'explorer les planètes extérieures.

1977 – La Libye devient la Jamahiriya arabe libyenne populaire et socialiste lorsque le Congrès général du peuple a adopté la « Déclaration de l'établissement de l'Autorité populaire ».

1978 – Le tchèque Vladimír Remek devient le premier non-russe ou non-américain à aller dans l'espace, lorsqu'il est lancé à bord du Soyouz 28.

1983 – Des disques compacts et des lecteurs sont commercialisés pour la première fois aux États-Unis et sur d'autres marchés. Ils étaient auparavant disponibles uniquement au Japon.

1989 – Douze pays de la Communauté européenne conviennent d'interdire la production de tous les chlorofluorocarbures (CFC) d'ici la fin du siècle.

1990 – Nelson Mandela est élu vice-président du Congrès national africain.

1991 – La bataille du champ pétrolifère de Rumaila met fin à la guerre du Golfe de 1991.

1992 – L'Arménie, l'Azerbaïdjan, le Kazakhstan, le Kirghizistan, la Moldavie, Saint-Marin, le Tadjikistan, le Turkménistan et l'Ouzbékistan rejoignent les Nations Unies.

1995 – Des chercheurs du Laboratoire Fermi annoncent la découverte du quark top.

1998 - Les données envoyées par le vaisseau spatial Galileo indiquent que la lune de Jupiter Europa a un océan liquide sous une épaisse croûte de glace.

2002 - Invasion américaine de l'Afghanistan : début de l'opération Anaconda (se terminant le 19 mars après avoir tué 500 combattants talibans et al-Qaïda, avec 11 morts parmi les soldats occidentaux).

2004 - Guerre en Irak : Al-Qaïda effectue le massacre d'Ashoura en Irak, tuant 170 personnes et en blessant plus de 500.

2012 - Une épidémie de tornade s'est produite sur une grande partie du sud des États-Unis et dans la région de la vallée de l'Ohio, entraînant 40 décès liés à la tornade.


La guerre des roses commence

Dans la bataille d'ouverture de l'Angleterre&# x2019s Guerre des Roses, les Yorkistes vaincre le roi Henry VI&# x2019s forces lancastriennes à St Albans, à 20 milles au nord-ouest de Londres. De nombreux nobles de Lancastre périrent, dont Edmund Beaufort, le duc de Somerset, et le roi fut contraint de se soumettre au règne de son cousin, Richard d'York. La lutte dynastique entre la Maison d'York, dont l'insigne était une rose blanche, et la Maison de Lancaster, plus tard associée à une rose rouge, durera 30 ans.

Les deux familles, étroitement liées, ont revendiqué le trône par descendance des fils d'Edouard III, roi d'Angleterre de 1327 à 1377. Le premier roi de Lancastre était Henri IV en 1399, et la rébellion et l'anarchie étaient monnaie courante pendant son règne. Son fils, Henri V, a eu plus de succès et a remporté des victoires majeures dans la guerre de Cent Ans contre la France. Son fils et successeur, Henri VI, avait peu de qualités royales et a perdu la plupart des terres françaises que son père avait conquises. À la maison, le chaos régnait et les seigneurs avec des armées privées ont contesté l'autorité d'Henry VI&# x2019. Parfois, sa reine ambitieuse, Marguerite d'Anjou, contrôlait efficacement la couronne.

En 1453, Henri tomba dans la folie et, en 1454, le Parlement nomma Richard, duc d'York, protecteur du royaume. Henry et York&# x2019s grands-pères étaient les quatrième et troisième fils d'Édouard III, respectivement. Lorsque Henry se rétablit à la fin de 1454, il congédia York et rétablit l'autorité de Margaret, qui considérait York comme une menace pour la succession de leur fils, le prince Edward. York leva une armée de 3 000 hommes et, en mai, les Yorkistes marchèrent sur Londres. Le 22 mai 1455, York a rencontré les forces d'Henry&# x2019s à St Albans sur la route du nord vers la capitale. La rencontre sanglante dura moins d'une heure et les Yorkistes l'emportèrent. Le duc de Somerset, Margaret&# x2019s grand allié, a été tué, et Henry a été capturé par les Yorkistes.

Après la bataille, Richard fut à nouveau nommé protecteur anglais, mais en 1456 Margaret reprit le dessus. Une paix difficile a été rompue en 1459, et en 1460, les Lancastre ont été vaincus, et York a obtenu le droit de monter sur le trône à la mort d'Henry&# x2019. Les Lancastriens rassemblèrent ensuite leurs forces dans le nord de l'Angleterre et, en décembre 1460, surprirent et tuèrent York à l'extérieur de son château près de Wakefield.

York&# x2019s fils Edward a atteint Londres avant Margaret et a été proclamé roi Édouard IV. En mars 1461, Edward remporte une victoire décisive contre les Lancastre à la bataille de Towton, la plus sanglante de la guerre. Henry, Margaret et leur fils ont fui en Écosse et la première phase de la guerre était terminée.

La rivalité yorkiste conduira plus tard au renversement d'Édouard en 1470 et à la restauration d'Henri VI. L'année suivante, Edward est revenu d'exil aux Pays-Bas, a vaincu les forces de Margaret&# x2019s, tué son fils, et emprisonné Henry dans la Tour de Londres, où il a été assassiné. Edward IV a ensuite régné sans interruption jusqu'à sa mort en 1483. Son fils aîné a été proclamé Edward V, mais Edward IV&# x2019s frère, Richard III, a saisi la couronne et emprisonné Edward et son jeune frère dans la Tour de Londres, où ils ont disparu, probablement assassiné. En 1485, Richard III fut vaincu et tué par les Lancastre dirigés par Henry Tudor à la bataille de Bosworth Field.

Henry Tudor a été proclamé roi Henri VII, le premier roi Tudor. Henry était le petit-fils de Catherine de Valois, la veuve d'Henri V, et d'Owen Tudor. En 1486, il épousa Edward IV&# x2019s fille Elizabeth d'York, unissant ainsi les revendications Yorkist et Lancastrian. Cet événement est considéré comme marquant la fin de la guerre de Roses bien que certains Yorkistes aient soutenu en 1487 une rébellion infructueuse contre Henry, dirigée par Lambert Simnel. La guerre de Roses a laissé peu de marque sur le peuple anglais commun, mais a sévèrement éclairci les rangs de la noblesse anglaise.


Réformes administratives

Entre-temps, Charles réorganisait son armée et l'administration de ses territoires. Des statuts promulgués à Thionville (1473) instituaient des compagnies de quatre escadrons, à ses frais, et édictaient des règles de discipline et de tactique. Charles fit également couler de nombreux excellents canons. Il engagea des soldats et prit à son service de nombreux condottieri (capitaines mercenaires) italiens. Dans l'intention de centraliser le gouvernement, il a créé par statut un organisme unique chambre des comptes contrôler les finances ducales pour les Pays-Bas, une chambre du trésor surveiller l'administration de son propre domaine, et un chambre des généraux contrôler la perception des impôts. Il prélevait en effet de très lourdes taxes sur les États généraux (parlement), qui devenaient une institution régulière dans ses territoires. Pour administrer la justice, il a créé un tribunal appelé le grand conseil à Malines, avec compétence pour remplacer celle de la parlement de Paris, et un autre qui se réunissait alternativement à Beaune et à Dole.

Il restait à Charles à acquérir un titre royal. Pendant une courte période, il entretint des desseins sur la couronne du Saint Empire romain germanique, mais il y renonça. En revanche, il croyait avoir persuadé l'empereur Frédéric III, au cours d'entretiens à Trèves, d'accepter de le couronner roi de Bourgogne. Les insignes royaux étaient prêts et la cérémonie arrangée, quand Frédéric s'enfuit précipitamment de nuit (septembre 1473). Il se méfiait probablement de l'ambitieux Charles.

En moins de trois ans, le rêve de Charles s'évanouit. La couronne avait glissé entre ses doigts. Il dut renoncer à son projet de prendre la petite ville de Neuss, qu'il avait assiégée sans succès pendant 11 mois (juillet 1474 à juin 1475), aux citoyens de Cologne. De plus, le traité de Picquigny (29 août 1475), conclu par Edouard IV et Louis XI, assurait la défection de son allié anglais. Attaqué par René de Lorraine, qui avait signé un accord avec Louis XI (août 1474), et par une coalition de Suisses, Sigismond d'Autriche et les villes du Rhin supérieur, Charles prit Nancy en novembre 1475 mais, en mars et juin 1476, il est battu par les Suisses, à Granson et à Morat. En octobre, il perd Nancy. Puis, le 5 janvier 1477, une autre bataille a eu lieu à l'extérieur de Nancy, et Charles lui-même a été tué. Son corps mutilé a été découvert quelques jours plus tard.

La fragilité de son exploit est prouvée par les graves contestations qu'il a subies lors de la minorité de Marie de Bourgogne, sa fille par Isabelle de Bourbon. Pourtant, Charles le Téméraire n'était pas seulement un représentant tardif de l'esprit chevaleresque, c'était un homme de grande connaissance et culture, déjà un prince de la Renaissance. Sa hâte, son manque d'adaptabilité et son obstination le perdirent bien plus que son approche visionnaire et son audace.


Le roi Macbeth est tué par Malcolm Canmore

Lors de la bataille de Lumphanan, le roi Macbeth d'Écosse est tué par Malcolm Canmore, dont le père, le roi Duncan I, a été assassiné par Macbeth 17 ans plus tôt.

Macbeth était un petit-fils du roi Kenneth II et avait également une prétention au trône par l'intermédiaire de sa femme, Gruoch, qui était la petite-fille de Kenneth III&# x2013le roi écossais qui avait été renversé par Duncan&# x2019s prédécesseur le roi Malcolm II. Sous le roi Duncan, Macbeth était gouverneur de la province écossaise de Moray et un commandant militaire de confiance. Cependant, il s'est opposé aux liens de Duncan&# x2019s avec les Saxons dans le Sud, et il s'est révolté. Le 14 août 1040, Macbeth tua Duncan dans une bataille près d'Elgin, et il fut couronné roi d'Écosse à sa place.

En 1054, après 14 ans de règne, le roi Macbeth subit une défaite militaire majeure à la bataille de Dunsinane contre Siward, le comte de Northumbrie. Siward agissait au nom de Malcolm Canmore, Duncan&# x2019s fils. Malcolm a ensuite pris le contrôle de la partie sud de l'Écosse et a passé les trois années suivantes à poursuivre Macbeth, qui a fui vers le nord. Le 15 août 1057, Macbeth est vaincu et tué par Malcolm à la bataille de Lumphanan avec l'aide des Anglais. Malcolm Canmore a été couronné Malcolm III en 1058.


Affirmation du pouvoir

A l'avènement de Jean II, ce traité de paix l'avait obligé à placer ses jeunes enfants sous tutelle espagnole près de la frontière en gage de leur mariage avec des Castillans. Afonso avait été limité en autorité par l'ambitieuse Maison de Bragança, la famille la plus riche du Portugal. Jean convoqua les Cortes (assemblée) à Évora (novembre 1481) et imposa un serment d'obéissance drastique à ses vassaux. Il a également réaffirmé la beneplacet, exigeant que des lettres papales lui soient soumises avant publication. Il a négocié avec succès une révision du traité avec l'Espagne, par laquelle ses enfants lui ont été rendus. Il accuse alors le duc de Bragance de trahison et le fait juger et décapiter à Évora (juin 1483). Bien que des preuves aient été produites que les Braganças avaient intrigué avec la Castille, il semble clair que Jean cherchait à se venger d'avoir causé la mort de son grand-père maternel, le régent Dom Pedro. Il confisqua les vastes domaines des Braganças et nomma des juges royaux dans ce qui avait été des juridictions privées de la noblesse. Lorsqu'un deuxième complot a cherché à l'enlever et à conférer la couronne au frère de sa femme, le duc de Viseu, Jean a tué son rival de sa propre main (août 1484).


Renaissance du clan Maclean 20 th Century &mdash Present

En 1911, Sir Fitzroy Donald Maclean de Duart, Bt, 26 e chef, a fièrement proclamé que je suis heureux de dire que l'ancienne forteresse des Maclean est maintenant ma propriété aux 400 Maclean qui se sont joints à lui pour célébrer la reconquête du château de Duart. Cela fait 221 ans que la bannière Maclean est au-dessus de cet ancien château. et je sais parfaitement que l'honneur de ce drapeau et l'honneur de notre clan seront toujours en sécurité entre vos mains. Sir Fitzroy était un vétéran de la guerre de Crimée, ami du roi Édouard VII et connaissance proche à la fois de la reine Victoria et de Jefferson Davis, le clan Maclean doit une grande partie de sa résurgence à son leadership en tant que chef. Sir Fitzroy a vécu jusqu'à 101 ans et le jour de son dernier anniversaire, la querelle avec les Campbell a pris fin.

Bien que les chefs du 17 e siècle aient eu du mal à maîtriser le paysage politique centré sur la cour, au 18 e siècle, ils avaient maîtrisé leur art politique tout en maintenant la fière tradition militaire de nos ancêtres. Les récents chefs et chefs Maclean sont devenus l'incarnation des hommes d'État guerriers modernes. Sir Fitzroy Hew Royle Maclean, de Dunconnel, Bt, qui a été envoyé par le Premier ministre Winston Churchill pour aider Tito, a été l'inspiration pour le personnage de l'ami Ian Flemming, James Bond. Sir Fitzroy devint plus tard diplomate et député. Lord Charles Maclean de Duart et Morvern, Bt, KT, GCVO, KBE, PC, Baron Maclean, 27 e chef, a modernisé le mouvement scout avant d'être choisi pour servir comme chef de famille de la reine Elizabeth II en tant que Lord Chamberlain. Lord Maclean était sans doute le chef écossais le plus influent de l'ère moderne. Sir Lachlan Maclean de Duart et Morvern, Bt, CVL, DL, 28 e chef, a servi dans le Special Air Service (SAS), une unité d'élite des forces spéciales de l'armée britannique, avant une brillante carrière dans les affaires. Sir Lachlan travaille maintenant à préserver l'histoire du clan Maclean&rsquos pour les générations futures.

Depuis la restauration de Duart Castle, les Macleans du monde entier sont devenus l'un des clans écossais modernes les plus actifs et les plus impliqués. Le clan Maclean est aujourd'hui une véritable famille mondiale.

Les références

  1. 1. MacLean, J.P. Une histoire du clan MacLean de son premier établissement au château de Duard, sur l'île de Mull, jusqu'à la période actuelle. Cincinnati : R. Clarke, 1889. 1p22-34, 1bp160, 1cp243. Imprimer.
  2. 2. Sinclair, Alexander Maclean. Le clan Gillean. Charlottetown : Haszard et Moore, 1899. 2p29-42, 2pb50.
  3. 3. Kennedy, Matthieu. Une dissertation chronologique, généalogique et historique de la famille royale des Stuarts. Paris : Imprimé par L. Coignard, 1705. Imprimer.
  4. 4. N.p. MS 72.1.1. Bibliothèque nationale d'Écosse. vers 1400.
  5. 5. O'Clery, pèlerin. Livre de généalogies O'Clery. 1632. MS 23 D 17, P33, Col A38 B. Royal Irish Academy, n.p.
  6. 6. Maclean-Bristol, Nicolas. Guerriers et prêtres : l'histoire du clan Maclean, 1300-1570. East Linton, East Lothian, Ecosse : Tuckwell, 1995. p2-12, 6bp162. Imprimer.
  7. 7. Broun, Dauvit, &ldquoAedán mac Gabráin&rdquo dans Michael Lynch (éd.), Le compagnon d'Oxford de l'histoire écossaise. Oxford UP, Oxford, 2001. 7p40-42, 7bp161-162. Imprimer.
  8. 8. Magnusson, Magnus. Ecosse : L'histoire d'une nation. New York : Atlantic Monthly, 2000. p38-40. Imprimer.
  9. 9. Campbell, Donald. Traité sur la langue, la poésie et la musique des clans des Highlands. Edimbourg : D.R. Colley, 1862. p211. Imprimer.
  10. 10. McGregor, James, Thomas Maclauchlan et W.F. Skene. Le doyen de Lismore & rsquos livre une sélection de poésie gaélique ancienne. Édimbourg : Edmonston & Douglas, 1862. p39. Imprimer.
  11. 11. Bannerman, John. Études sur l'histoire de Dálriada. Édimbourg : Scottish Academic, 1974. p 68. Imprimer.
  12. 12. Anderson, Alan Orr, éd. Les premières sources de l'histoire écossaise : a.d. 500 à 1286. 1922. p61-62.
  13. 13. Blanc, Robert. Une histoire de la bataille de Bannockburn combattue en 1314 après JC. Edmonston Edmonston et Douglas, 1871. p160. Imprimer.
  14. 14. &ldquoPage Personne - 5095.&rdquo Nos ancêtres et cousins ​​royaux, titrés, nobles et communs (plus de 157 000 noms). N.p., s.d. La toile. 17 avril 2014.
  15. 15. Robertson, James A. Preuves historiques concises concernant le Gaël d'Alban. Edimbourg : W.P. Nimmo, 1866. Imprimer.
  16. 16. 'Regesta 256 : 1366-1367', Calendrier des registres pontificaux relatifs à la Grande-Bretagne et à l'Irlande, Volume 4 : 1362-1404. 1902, p. 59-66. URL : http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=96373 Date de consultation : 21 avril 2014
  17. 17. Blanc, Alasdair. &ldquoUn clan, deux familles.&rdquo Clan MacLean. N.p., s.d. La toile. 29 avril 2014.
  18. 18. Thomson, A.T. Mémoires des Jacobites de 1715 et 1745 Volume 2. S & J Bently, Wilson, et Fley, 1845. Imprimer, 124-254.
  19. 19. Hoey, Brian. MacLean de Duart : la biographie de « Chips » Maclean. Twickenham : Country Life, 1986. Imprimer, 168-169.

Article de Kane McLean, 4 février 2016 publié sous la licence Creative Commons (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0) Unported.


Anne Neville fut reine d'Angleterre pendant la majeure partie du règne de son mari, mais mourut en mars 1485, cinq mois avant la mort de Richard III.

Un vitrail représentant Richard III et la reine Anne au château de Cardiff. Crédit: VeteranMP / Commons.


Histoire épique du monde

Ferdinand est né à Sos, Aragon, le 19 mars 1452, en tant que fils de Jean II d'Aragon et de Navarre (1397�) et de Juana Enriquez, sa seconde épouse. En tant qu'héritier du trône d'Aragon, Ferdinand devint roi de Sicile en 1468. Il était habile, impitoyable, ambitieux, égocentrique et politique dans toutes ses entreprises. Ferdinand était souvent trompeur dans ses accords, répudiant les traités et autres accords peu de temps après leur signature.

Ferdinand a épousé sa cousine tout aussi ambitieuse, pieuse mais plus sage Isabelle de Castille-et-León. Elle est née à Madrigal de las Torres en Castille le 22 avril 1451, fille du faible d'esprit Jean II de Castille-et-León (1405–821154) et d'Isabelle de Portugal, sa seconde épouse à l'esprit fort.


Isabelle avait un caractère plus éthique que Ferdinand. Elle a hérité d'une vaste lignée royale de plusieurs générations de dynasties européennes. Le couple a maintenu des liens exceptionnellement étroits avec la papauté.

Le demi-frère imbécile d'Isabelle, Henri IV (1425-821174), également connu sous le nom d'Impuissant, monta sur le trône après la mort de leur père en 1454. Avec son frère cadet, Alfonso, Isabella fut amenée à la cour d'Henri pour plus de protection et de rigueur. surveillance. Isabella est devenue un pion dans les plans de son frère pour rendre son futur mariage économiquement avantageux et politiquement avantageux pour la Castille.

Il voulait qu'elle épouse, entre autres, le roi de Portugal, le dauphin français ou un prince anglais, ce qu'elle refusa fermement. Après la mort d'Alphonse en 1468, Henri proclama la prudente et douce Isabelle son héritière le 19 septembre 1468, date à laquelle ils apposèrent tous deux leur signature sur l'Accord de Toros de Guisiando.

Isabelle épousa secrètement son cousin Ferdinand à Ocaña, le 19 octobre 1469, sans le consentement d'Henri. Il l'a renié, a rapidement révoqué l'accord de Toros de Guisiando et a nommé sa fille présumée la princesse Juana la Beltraneja (1462�) princesse de Castille et en 1475 l'épouse du roi Afonso V du Portugal (1432󈞽), comme son héritière. . Juana était la fille illégitime de la femme d'Henry et de Beltrán de la Cueva.

Après la mort d'Henri le 10 décembre 1474, Isabelle monta sur le trône le 13 décembre à Ségovie. Sa revendication a été immédiatement contestée par Juana et Afonso, la lutte est devenue une guerre civile. Isabella avait un fort soutien d'Aragon et de ses compatriotes.

Muhammad XII (Boabdil) se rend à Ferdinand et Isabelle

Ferdinand a vaincu les forces de Juana à la bataille de Toro le 1er mars 1476, et de nouveau le 25 février 1479. Le traité d'Alcaçova en septembre 1479 a mis fin à la guerre civile. Juana entra au couvent de Santa Clara de Coimtra en 1480.

Pour consolider un contrôle plus ferme sur l'Espagne une fois qu'ils sont devenus comonarques, Ferdinand et Isabelle ont soumis tous les groupes de résistance, capturé les villes et les forteresses insoumises et vaincu toutes les rébellions contre leur domination.

Ensuite, ils ont procédé à la reconstruction des Cortes (Parlement), ont réorganisé l'administration du gouvernement et ont produit un cadre juridique pour l'Espagne qui a accordé un plus grand pouvoir à la monarchie au détriment de la noblesse, qui était devenue dangereusement puissante sous les monarques précédents.


À la mort du père de Ferdinand en 1479, l'union de Ferdinand et Isabelle a fusionné les deux plus grands royaumes de la péninsule ibérique et a créé 90 pour cent de l'Espagne actuelle. L'astucieuse Isabelle a insisté pour qu'il y ait un gouvernement commun et qu'elle gouverne elle-même la Castille.

Le dicton "Tanto monta, monta tanto" (Ils sont une seule et même chose) est devenu leur devise. Isabella a également insisté pour que leurs deux noms soient inscrits sur chaque document royal et qu'elle préside à chaque transaction d'État. Elle a également permis que leurs armoiries soient unies.

Elle a collectionné des œuvres d'art importantes, a été largement lue, a appris le latin après l'âge de 30 ans, a créé des écoles et a soutenu l'ordre franciscain des Clarisses. Ensemble, ils ont réformé l'église et les monastères en Espagne, car tous deux étaient devenus corrompus et inefficaces.

Le couple a eu cinq enfants : Isabelle d'Aragon (1470󈟎), Juan d'Aragon (1478󈟍), Juana de Castille (1479�), Marie d'Aragon (1482�) et Catherine d'Aragon (1485� ), à qui Isabella était dévouée. Ils ont tous reçu la même éducation classique et ont appris les bases des tâches ménagères telles que la couture, la confection des lits et le nettoyage.

Les enfants ont été mariés dans des dynasties royales européennes principalement pour déborder les ambitions territoriales françaises. Juan a épousé Marguerite d'Autriche mais est décédé dans les six mois et n'a laissé aucun enfant. Juana est devenue folle après la mort de son mari, l'archiduc des Habsbourg Philippe le Beau (1478–82111506). Isabelle a épousé le roi Afonso V du Portugal (1432󈞽) puis le roi Manuel Ier du Portugal (1469�).

Elle est morte en couches et son fils Miguel est décédé dans les deux ans. Maria a épousé son beau-frère Manuel I du Portugal après la mort de sa sœur. Au terme d'au moins 13 ans de négociations, Catherine épousa Arthur Tudor, prince de Galles (1486–82111502) le 14 novembre 1501. Arthur mourut six mois plus tard.

Après la mort d'Arthur, parce que son père n'avait pas encore terminé le paiement de sa dot, Catherine épouserait le futur roi Henri VIII (1491&# 82111547) le 11 juin 1509. Il divorça d'elle le 30 mars 1533. Ferdinand et Isabelle&# Le petit-fils de 8217 de Juana et Philip a hérité de l'énorme héritage territorial de ses parents et de celui de Philip, il deviendrait l'empereur romain germanique Charles V (1519 - 821156).

Ferdinand et Isabelle croyaient que la conformité religieuse était d'une importance cruciale pour l'Espagne. Ils ont également réalisé les avantages politiques et économiques pour leur monarchie et ont incité avec zèle l'Inquisition espagnole, considérant le salut des âmes et l'éradication de l'hérésie comme leur devoir le plus sacré.

Pendant leur règne, l'Espagne hétérogène avait la plus grande population juive d'Europe. Ferdinand et Isabelle ont insisté pour que l'Espagne devienne blanche (non mauresque) et de pur sang chrétien, ou sangre limpia. Menacé de retirer son soutien militaire au pape Sixte VI (1521–821190), qui considérait leurs actions comme un complot visant à acquérir des biens juifs, Ferdinand a exigé que l'Espagne initie l'Inquisition.

Après un certain nombre d'arguments entre Ferdinand et Sixte, le pape a publié la bulle papale de 1478 qui a créé l'Inquisition à Séville. Il s'est ensuite étendu à toute l'Espagne et a commencé une longue période de nettoyage religieux.

Le pape Innocent VIII (1432󈟈) a nommé le prêtre dominicain Tomás de Torquemada (1420󈟎), confesseur d'Isabelle et lui-même petit-fils d'un converti, à la tête de l'Inquisition espagnole. Les Juifs partiellement convertis, les Marranes, maintenaient secrètement leurs cultures et coutumes juives.

Pour les forcer à avouer, Torquemada impose des méthodes de plus en plus précaires. Il a confisqué la propriété juive, qui a commodément financé une guerre contre une autre minorité en Espagne. Torquemada a humilié les Marranes en les forçant à porter un sambenito, une chemise jaune contenant des croix qui exposaient leurs organes génitaux en public.

Quelque 130 000 conversos ont été jugés devant les tribunaux de 1480 à 1492. Certains marranes ont été brûlés vifs. L'impitoyable Torquemada a organisé le procès-spectacle de LaGuardia en 1490 où aucune culpabilité n'a été prouvée mais les victimes ont été brûlées sur le bûcher. Quelque 30 000 Juifs ont été rituellement assassinés pendant l'Inquisition espagnole.

Ferdinand et Isabelle ont publié l'édit d'expulsion le 31 mars 1492. Les Juifs ont reçu l'ordre de quitter l'Espagne et de ne jamais revenir. Une fois son travail accompli, Torquemada se retira au monastère Saint-Thomas d'Ávila, où il mourut en 1498. Un débat historique persiste sur le nombre de victimes de l'Inquisition en Espagne.

Ferdinand et Isabelle se sont beaucoup appuyés sur l'expertise de son prochain confesseur, le cardinal Francisco Gonzalo Jiménez de Cisneros (1436–82111517), qui a contribué à élever l'Espagne à une prédominance sans précédent sur le continent européen. Le couple a pris le contrôle des ordres militaires de Calatrava, d'Alcántara et de Santiago, ce qui a considérablement accru leur pouvoir, leur richesse et leur territoire.

Ferdinand et Isabelle ont relancé la Reconquista vieille de plusieurs siècles. Ils ont mené une guerre coûteuse de 10 ans contre les Maures et ont finalement conquis Grenade, le dernier bastion maure, en 1491. Ils sont entrés triomphalement à Grenade le 2 janvier 1492. Isabelle, plus que Ferdinand, était responsable de l'horrible massacre des Maures. qui ne se convertirait pas au christianisme.

En 1501, Ferdinand et Isabelle offrirent aux Maures l'alternative du baptême ou de l'exil à ceux qui restèrent se firent connaître sous le nom de Morisques. En 1492, le pape Innocent VIII (1432 – 821192) accorda à Ferdinand et Isabelle le titre de « Majestés les plus catholiques » pour l'unification spirituelle de l'Espagne. La Reconquista était achevée.

Isabella was largely responsible for initiating the golden age of exploration for Spain. She financially supported the voyage of Christopher Columbus to the New World. She had rejected his request numerous times, but when he threatened to petition funds from France she relented and Columbus sailed in August 1492.

When he brought 150 natives to Spain, she bought some and gave them their freedom. Ferdinand and Isabella were strongly involved with the establishment of the Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494 that divided the non-Christian world overseas between Portugal and Spain.

Isabella died at Medina del Campo on November 26, 1504. Ferdinand married Germaine de Foix on October 19, 1505. Ferdinand served as regent of Castile after Juana died and later for his grandson Charles V. Ferdinand also fought in lengthy Italian Wars against France.

His generals conquered Naples in 1504, and in 1512 he annexed Navarre. He also joined the League of Cambrai in 1508 to thwart Venetian objectives and the Holy League in 1511 to counteract France. Ferdinand also founded universities.

Ferdinand died at Midrigalejo, Spain, on January 23, 1516. He is buried beside Isabella, at the Capilla Real in Granada alongside Juan, Philip, and a grandson.


The Battle of Layla-tul-Harir

Next morning, Ali and Malik mounted their horses, and rode in front of the Syrian army surveying its disposition. They made some minor changes in the plan of the battle, and then, upon a signal from Ali, Malik attacked the left wing of the enemy.

The Syrians enjoyed a numerical superiority over Malik, and their generals tried to make the best of it. Whenever he attacked, they gave in but somehow managed to regroup.

Malik fought all day long. Normally, the two armies stopped fighting after sunset, and returned to the camp for prayers and for rest but that day Malik refused to return. He also didn't let the Syrians return to their camp, and kept them in the battlefield.

After a brief pause for his prayers, Malik launched his blitz upon the Syrian army. This time his charge was so impetuous that the Syrians were driven before him like sheep. After the night prayer, Ali also returned to the battlefield, and attacked the right wing of the Syrians. Between them, they began to grind the Syrian army.

They killed hundreds of Syrian warriors and spread terror and dismay in their ranks. The groans and screams of the Syrian wounded and the dying, the clangor of arms, the clash of steel, Malik's double-edged sword ripping through the Syrian armor, and his battle-cry of Allah-o-Akbar, filled the night sky of the desert.

Malik was, beyond all measure daring and intrepid. He did indeed seem in the presence of the enemy to be the very Genius of Victory. He was a special and a fatal instrument in the hands of the Providence. Wherever he rode, victory charged with him.

Edward Gibbon

In this sanguinary contest the lawful caliph displayed a superior character of valor and humanity. His troops were strictly enjoined to await the first onset of the enemy, to spare their flying brethren, and to respect the bodies of the dead, and the chastity of the female captives. He generously proposed to save the blood of the Moslems by a single combat but his trembling rival declined the challenge as a sentence of inevitable death.

The ranks of the Syrians were broken by the charge of a hero who was mounted on a piebald horse, and wielded with irresistible force his ponderous and two-edged sword. As often as he smote a rebel, he shouted Allah Akbar, ‘God is Victorious!' and in the tumult of a nocturnal battle he was heard to repeat four hundred times that tremendous exclamation. (The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire)

The hero who broke the ranks of the Syrians, was Malik. But already he had killed so many of them – the rank-and-file Syrians – that he began to lose interest in them. He searched for quarry of a higher grade. In the battle of Basra, he had put an end to fighting by killing the camel which carried Ayesha on its back. His aim now was to kill or to capture Muawiya, and thus to put an end to the battle of Siffin. With the instinct of a hunter, therefore, he began to move toward his prey.

Malik rode through pools of blood and over high banks of the Syrian slain, irresistibly, inexorably and perhaps inevitably. Whoever challenged him or stood in his way, was cut into pieces.

Muawiya now could see with his own eyes that the crunch was coming. What he saw closing in on him, was not Malik, Ali's Chief of Staff, but the Angel of Death. The solid ground under his feet appeared to him to be turning into a quicksand.

His bodyguards, though hand-picked for their bravery, strength and devotion to him and to his house, were powerless before Malik. They could not stop him from advancing toward his prey but they did the second best thing – they got fresh horses ready for him (for Muawiya) to mount and to escape from the battlefield under the cover of darkness.

In this dire distress, Muawiya turned to Amr bin Aas, and said:

“Is there any hope that we can still save our lives or this desolate plain is destined to become our graveyard? And incidentally, do you still want Egypt? If you do, then think at once of some stratagem to check Malik or else all of us including you, will be killed in the next few moments.”

The instinct for survival was very strong in Amr bin Aas. He could rise equal to almost any occasion, and was, in fact, ready with a stratagem for this very moment. Amr's stratagem was going to wrest not only the prey but victory itself out of Malik's hand!

The battle that Malik was fighting, is famous in history as the “Battle of Layla-tul-Harir.” It was the climax of the grim contest in the plain of Siffin on the bank of the Euphrates. It was also the high point of the political and military careers of both Ali and Malik, as events were very soon to show.

Ever since Ali had demanded the pledge of loyalty from Muawiya, he (Muawiya) had opened a psychological war against him. One of the weapons, he had used in his psychological warfare against Ali, was gold or the lure of gold. His mother, Hinda, had used sex as a weapon in her warfare against Islam in the battle of Uhud.

With the weapon of gold, Muawiya had success – fully seduced many of the senior officers in the Iraqi army, and had dented their will-to-fight. He had not only loaded them with gold and silver but had also promised to appoint them as governors of the provinces and commanders in his army if they betrayed Ali at the critical moment in the battle.

The critical moment had arrived. Malik's immense strokes had thrown the Syrians into hopeless disorder. Their only hope for their safety was in the darkness of the night which would or might conceal them from the sight of Malik.

Malik who figured that he was on the point of killing or capturing Muawiya and Amr bin Aas, did not know that both of them were in possession of a secret weapon which would save their lives and would baffle him. The secret weapon of Muawiya was already working silently and insidiously but effectively. It was the seed of treason that he had planted in the Iraqi army. The seed suddenly burgeoned in the battle of Layla-tul-Harir!

Malik was still clobbering the Syrian army savagely when Amr bin Aas ordered his soldiers to hoist copies of Qur’an on the points of their lances as a gesture of their wish to refer the dispute to the Judgment of God to be found in it.

Those officers in the Iraqi army who had been bought by Muawiya, and were ready to act their part, were awaiting a signal. As soon as they saw copies of Qur’an on the lances, they put their swords in the scabbards and stopped fighting, to the great surprise and consternation of Ali, Abdullah ibn Abbas, and the handful of their faithful officers. Just then, Abdullah ibn Abbas also caught sight of the spiked copies of Qur’an, and he understood what was afoot. His terse comment was:

“The battle is over treachery has begun.”

And so it was. Muawiya and Amr bin Aas had appealed to the arbitration of arms, and they had failed. They now appealed to treachery, and as events were soon to show, they were going to succeed! The first man in the Iraqi army who stopped fighting, was Ash'ath bin Qays, the same whose daughter, Jo’dah, was to kill Hasan ibn Ali with poison some years later. He was the ringleader of the traitors in the Iraqi army. He came to see Ali and said to him:

“The Syrians do not want to see any more bloodshed among the Muslims. They want the Book of God to be a judge between them and us. We, therefore, cannot fight against them any more.”

The leaders of other tribes who were also in league with Muawiya, stopped fighting in imitation of Ash'ath bin Qays. The tribesmen followed the example of their leaders, and they too stopped fighting. Thus fighting came to a virtual halt over most of the front. Only one squadron - the one led by Malik – was left in the field fighting and battering the Syrians.

It did not occur to the traitors in the Iraqi army that if Muawiya and Amr bin Aas had any respect for Qur’an, they would have invited it (the Iraqi army) to make the Word of God the Arbiter in their dispute before or even during the battle but they did not. They remembered Qur’an only when the defeat and the destruction of the Syrian army suddenly loomed before them over the horizon.

Ash'ath bin Qays was suddenly gripped with love for the lives of the Muslims. He seized a copy of Qur’an, stood facing his army, and shouted:

“O Muslims! Compel Ali to accept arbitration of the Book of God, and thereby put an end to this bloodshed.”

The bloodshed of the Muslims alarmed Ash'ath only when he saw that Ali was on the point of winning the battle. Ali's victory, he knew, would not change anything for him. But in the event of Ali's failure, he was assured of rich rewards from Muawiya. His “anxiety” to save the lives of the Muslims, therefore, was understandable.

Presently, Ali was surrounded by the leaders of the tribes in his army, and they began to urge him to stop fighting against the Syrians, who, they said, at that very moment, were appealing to him, in the name of the Book of God, to stop killing the Muslims. Ali warned them that they were being duped by the enemy, and exhorted them to press their advantage to victory. He also told them that the appeal in the name of the Book of God was nothing but a ruse to deprive them of the fruits of their victory, and to escape defeat and death.

But Muawiya's gold and silver proved to be much more powerful argument than anything Ali could say. The traitors soon became insolent they asked Ali to recall Malik from the battlefield, and to declare a cease-fire immediately. Ali hesitated but realized that he did not have much of a choice in the face of an impending mutiny in his own army, and sent a messenger to Malik calling him from the front-line.

Malik had been so engrossed in grinding the remnants of the Syrian army that he had not even noticed that his own army was not fighting any more. He, therefore, told the messenger that it was no time for him to leave the battlefield, and to leave his job unfinished.

Malik was very soon going to find out that his ponderous and double-edged sword which had decimated the Syrian army, would become powerless against a new weapon forged by Muawiya and Amr bin Aas – the weapon of the double-cross!

When Muawiya's agents and hirelings in Ali's camp heard Malik's reply, they told him that if he (Malik) did not return from the battle immediately, they would seize him (Ali), and would deliver him into his (Muawiya's) hands. This time Ali had to send a signal of distress to Malik who was told that if he did not return to the camp at that very moment, he would not see his master any more.

Malik ground his teeth in anger as he could now see his quarry slip from his grasp. He came into the camp in a towering rage, raring to kill the traitors but sensed the danger to his master who was in their midst, and all of them had their hands at the hilts of their swords. When he sharply reproved them for their stupidity and treachery, they moved menacingly toward him with their drawn swords. But Ali interposed between them, and said to the traitors:

“You may not fight against your enemy but at least do not kill your own greatest friend.”

Ali did not want Muawiya to see the in-fighting in his own camp.

The battle of Siffin was over. Where Muawiya's power had failed, his craft and guile had succeeded. Victory eluded Ali's grasp, and thenceforth he was to be on the defensive in a losing war against Muawiya. The cease-fire marked the beginning of his political decline.

After the cessation of hostilities, it was agreed that the civil war of the Muslims should be referred to arbitration, and the decision of the arbitrators should be accepted by all parties. It was clearly stipulated in these early negotiations that the arbitrators would make their decision only “in the light of the Book of God.” Muawiya designated Amr bin Aas as the arbitrator representing his side and the rebels in Ali's army proposed the name of Abu Musa al-Ash’ary to represent Iraq.

Abu Musa was a man who combined stupidity with questionable loyalty to Ali. He was soon to demonstrate both qualities, one of his head, and the other of his heart, in his encounter with Amr bin Aas for whom he was no match in anything, least of all in the subtleties of diplomacy and negotiation.

Ali instinctively rejected Abu Musa whom he had always found repulsive. His own choice was Abdullah ibn Abbas or Malik ibn Ashter. But both of them were acceptable neither to Muawiya nor to his agents in the Iraqi army like Ash'ath bin Qays and others. They said that they wanted an “impartial” and a “non-partisan” man such as Abu Musa was but Abdullah ibn Abbas and Malik ibn Ashter were not. Ali asked them: “If that is so, then why don't you raise objection to the designation of Amr bin Aas who is neither impartial nor non-partisan?” They replied that they were responsible only for their own affairs, and not for the affairs of others.

Ali resisted the pressures of the traitors but they were all fattening on Muawiya's gold which they were not ready to forfeit at any price. It was, in fact, arranged beforehand that Abu Musa would represent Iraq. Eventually, the traitors succeeded in foisting the dim-wit Abu Musa upon their master as his “representative.”

When the cease-fire agreement was being drafted, an incident occurred which harked back to Hudaybiyya. The secretary wrote the words: “This is an agreement between Ali ibn Abi Talib, the Chief of the Believers, and Muawiya bin Abu Sufyan. ” Amr bin Aas, the representative of Muawiya, raised objection, and said: “Delete the words, ‘the Chief of the Believers.' If we had acknowledged Ali as the Chief of the Believers, we would not be fighting against him.”

Thereupon, Ali remarked: “How true was the Apostle of God when he foretold this very incident. When the Treaty of Hudaybiyya was being drafted, and I had written the words, ‘This is a Treaty between Muhammad, the Messenger of God, and . ' the idolaters interrupted me, and said that if they had acknowledged Muhammad as the Messenger of God, then they would not be fighting against him, and they insisted upon the deletion of the words, ‘Messenger of God,' from the text of the Treaty.”

At Hudaybiyya, Muhammad had deleted the words “Messenger of God” from the draft treaty at Siffin, Ali, walking in his (Muhammad's) footsteps, allowed the words “the Chief of the Believers” to be deleted from the draft treaty. The cease-fire agreement was duly signed and witnessed by both sides, and copies were exchanged for preservation in the archives.

The terms of the cease-fire agreement were:

1. Both arbitrators would be subject to the rule that their decisions would be taken in the light of the Book of God. If they are unable to decide anything on this basis, then they would take their decision in the light of the precedents and traditions of the Messenger of God.

2. The decision of the arbitrators, if based upon the Book of God, would be binding on both sides.

3. The arbitrators would investigate the causes that led to the murder of Uthman, and the civil war of the Muslims (to suggest remedial action for future).

4. The arbitrators would publish their decisions within six months from the date of the cease-fire.

5. The belligerents would observe a truce. They would protect the arbitrators who would have complete freedom of movement in the country.

6. The arbitrators would meet at a place on the frontier between Iraq and Syria.

The most important clause in this agreement was that the arbitrators would make the Book of God their guide, and that they would not be governed by their own lusts and desires.

The Battle of Siffin was officially over but Malik ibn Ashter, now “the chained dragon of the Arabs,” resolutely refused to witness the document of agreement. He considered it a document of infamy and iniquity.

R. A. Nicholson

A great battle was fought at Siffin, a village on the Euphrates. Ali had well-nigh gained the day when Muawiya bethought him of a stratagem. He ordered his troops to fix Korans on the points of their lances and to shout, “Here is the Book of God: Let it decide between us!” The miserable trick succeeded.

In Ali's army there were many pious fanatics to whom the proposed arbitration by the Koran appealed with irresistible force. They now sprang forward clamorously, threatening to betray their leader unless he would submit his cause to the Book. Vainly did Ali remonstrate with the mutineers, and warn them of the trap into which they were driving him, and this too at the moment when victory was within their grasp.

He had no choice but to yield and name as his umpire a man of doubtful loyalty, Abu Musa as-Ashari, one of the oldest surviving companions of the Prophet. Muawiya on his part named Amr bin al-Aas, whose cunning had prompted the decisive maneuver. (A Literary History of the Arabs, p. 192, 1969)

The two arbitrators, Abu Musa Ashari and Amr bin Aas, announced that they would meet, six months later, in Adhruh, to give their verdict in the dispute between the two parties. Ali and Muawiya then retired from Siffin to await the decision of the arbitrators.

When Ali returned to Kufa, he set to work to reorganize the government, but unfortunately, he was compelled to defer his plans because of the outbreak of a new rebellion in his army.

During the battle of Siffin, Muawiya had planted seeds of treason in the army of Iraq, as noted before. This he had done by making presents of gold and silver, and by making promises to grant lands, estates, and high civil and military ranks, to the key figures in Ali's army, in exchange for their support to him.

His “investments” had paid off rich dividends to him. The recipients of his gifts had forced Ali to stop fighting and to accept arbitration, and in this manner, he (Muawiya) had succeeded in dodging disaster and death at Siffin. They now sat expectantly, awaiting fulfillment, by Muawiya, of his promises.

But when Muawiya returned to Damascus, he felt that he could now afford to dispense with the services of most of his clients in Ali's army. He, therefore, told them that he did not promise them anything.

The clients realized that they had been tricked by Muawiya. In sheer chagrin and frustration, they turned to Ali, and asked him to repudiate the cease-fire agreement, and to resume fighting against Muawiya. But Ali refused to do this, and said that he had to wait and see if the decision of the arbitrators would be in conformity with the commandments in Qur’an or not before making any other move.

But the ex-clients of Muawiya did not want to wait. They pressed Ali to fight, and when he did not agree, they and their supporters left his army en masse, and broke their pledge of allegiance to him. There were 12,000 of these men who repudiated their oath of loyalty to Ali after the battle of Siffin. They are called Kharjis (Khawarij), and they gathered in a place called Harura from where they began to plunder the surrounding country, and to kill the innocent people, and in fact, everyone who disagreed with their views on government and politics.

Ali tried to persuade the Khawarij to return to Kufa, and to put before him the points of their disagreement with him. He answered all their questions and objections most satisfactorily, and some of them, being convinced that he was right, renewed their pledge of loyalty to him but many others did not. They now claimed that by agreeing to submit his dispute with Muawiya for arbitration by fallible human beings, instead of the Book of God, Ali had become an “apostate,” and that his “repentance” along could bring salvation to him.

Ali tolerated the insolence and the impudence of the Khawarij in the hope that they would realize their error but this only made them more insolent and more impudent. Presently, their leaders decided to leave Kufa, and to set up their headquarters in some other place. They selected a village called Nehrwan for this purpose, and ordered all Kharjis to assemble there. From Nehrwan, the Khawarij spread terror in the country. They committed new excesses to cover their guilt, shame and remorse. They went around killing people indiscriminately, not sparing even women and children. Then news came that they were planning to attack Kufa itself.

Ali had to act immediately to check Kharji lawlessness and anarchy, and he went in person to Nehrwan to meet their leaders. He told them that there was safe-conduct for all those among them who would leave their camp, return to their homes, and live in peace with their neighbors. Many of them realized that they had no reason to fight against Ali, and they left Nehrwan to go back to their homes. But a core of 4000 die-hards remained adamant in their demand that Ali had to “repent” before they would acknowledge him the leader of the Muslims.

They, then raised their battle-cry “No one to govern except Allah,” and attacked Ali's troops. Though they had attacked with reckless abandon, they didn't do much harm to Ali's troops. When the latter counter-attacked, the Khawarij were defeated most of them were killed, and only a few escaped from the battlefield.

Though the Khawarij had adopted as their slogan the Qur’anic verse No one is to govern except Allah, they had neither the intention nor the ability to set up the Kingdom of Heaven on earth. They only wanted power for themselves They were an explosive mixture of terrorism, politics and religious fanaticism.

In the event of their success, they would only have revived the tribal particularism of the pre-Islamic Arabs. To this day, they remain peculiarly unassimilated in the history of the Muslim people.

Dr. Hamid-ud-Din

The Kharjis prevented people from enlisting in Ali's army. And if anyone disagreed with their beliefs, they killed him on the spot. In this way, many Muslims were killed. Ali sent an emissary to dissuade them from committing crimes against innocent people but they killed him also.

The Kharji camp was at Nehrwan. Ali also led his army to Nehrwan. He asked the Khawarij to give up those men for trial and justice who had killed innocent Muslims. But they shouted with one voice that all of them had killed them, and that they considered the killing of such people (those Muslims who did not share their beliefs) a sacred duty. Ali once again pointed out their errors to them, and appealed to them to return to their homes but their response was negative.

At last, Ali sent Abu Ayub Ansari with the banner of Islam in the middle of the two opposing forces. Abu Ayub unfurled the banner, and announced that whoever from the Kharji camp would come beneath it, would be safe.

Many Kharjis realizing their error, came under the banner planted by Abu Ayub. But 4000 of their warriors still refused to leave their camp. They were determined to fight against Ali. They shouted, “No one to command except Allah,” and then they attacked Ali's army. They fought with the courage of fanatics but were surrounded and defeated, and nearly all of them perished. (History of Islam, Lahore, Pakistan, p. 202, 1971)

The battle-cry of the Kharjis, “No one to command except Allah,” was only a gimmick, designed to take political power into their own hands, and to deny it to everyone else.

In the meantime, Amr bin Aas and Abu Musa al-Ashari, the two arbitrators, had completed their secret negotiations, and were ready to make an announcement. Both of them had agreed that it was in the interests of the Dar-ul-Islam that Ali and Muawiya both should abdicate or should be deposed, and the Muslim umma should select a new ruler for itself.

The arbitrators and their staff met in Adhruh. Four hundred men of each side also arrived at the scene, as per the terms of the cease-fire agreement. The Syrian delegation was led by Abul Awar Salmi, and the Iraqi delegation was led by Abdullah ibn Abbas and Shurayh ibn Hani.

Many other people also came to Adhruh to hear the verdict of the arbitrators on the fate of the Dar-ul-Islam. Among them were Abdullah bin Umar, Abdullah by Zubayr, Abdur Rahman bin Abu Bakr, Saad bin Abi Waqqas, and Mughira bin Shaaba.

Amr bin Aas told Abu Musa that he held him in very high esteem since he (Abu Musa) was not only a companion of the Apostle of God but also was a great scholar, and for this reason, he deferred to him in everything, and also for this reason, he (Abu Musa) ought to be the first to make the announcement of their joint decision, which he (Amr) would confirm later.

Abdullah ibn Abbas warned Abu Musa that Amr might try to outwit and outmaneuver him, and suggested that he should let him (Amr) be the first to make the announcement. But Abu Musa did not pay heed to this advice of sagacity, and said:

“The case is airtight and there is no room in it for Amr bin Aas to maneuver or to score.”

Abu Musa had been utterly carried away by the show of “deference” made by Amr bin Aas to him. He then went into the pulpit to make the historic announcement, and said:

“O Muslims! Much sorrow and travail have been visited upon the umma of Muhammad by the wars of Ali and Muawiya. Therefore, both of us have decided to depose both of them, and we have agreed that the right of choosing a new khalifa should be given to the Muslim umma itself - to all of you.”

The Iraqi delegation was mortified to hear this announcement but decided, nevertheless, to hear what the other arbitrator had to say.

Abu Musa sat down after making his announcement, and then Amr bin Aas rose to make his announcement. He said:

“O Muslims! All of you have just heard what Abu Musa said regarding the deposition of Ali. He has deposed Ali as khalifa. I uphold his decision, and declare that Ali is desposed as khalifa. And in Ali's place, I appoint Muawiya as your new khalifa. ”

Amr bin Aas had not concluded his remarks yet when there was an uproar of outrage. Abu Musa screamed in confusion and fury: “Liar! I never said this. You are the most brazen liar. You are a dog which is loaded with books and which pants and puts out its tongue when under the load.” Amr rose equal to the occasion, and returned the compliments by saying: “You are a donkey which is loaded with books, and which brays aloud when under a heavy load.”

The “dog” and the “donkey” snapped, snarled and glowered for a few moments, and then attacked each other fiercely. They bit and kicked each other, and they “barked” and “brayed” in the midst of pandemonium until they were hoarse. There was laughter too, though at the expense of Abu Musa alone.

After six months of in camera deliberations, the only “fare” that the arbitrators – Amr bin Aas and Abu Musa had prepared for the “edification” of the hundreds of Muslims who had flocked to Adhruh for the “feast,” was “music” which was provided by the first of them by “barking,” and by the second, by “braying.”

The “concert” was, at last, over, and the Muslims who had come from distant places, left Adhruh to return to their homes.

Abu Musa realized that he had become the laughing stock of all Arabs, and he fled to Yemen to hide his shame. He was a man of rather modest abilities but a coincidence of events had put him in a position where he perhaps assumed that he was in control of the destiny of the Muslim umma. His conceit was in conflict with prudence, and conceit won.

The job he was called upon to handle, was just too big for someone so handicapped by lack of ability as he was, and he botched it. He was one of the confidantes of Umar bin al-Khattab who had appointed him governor, first of Basra and then of Kufa.

The threat to Muawiya had passed forever, and in his struggle to seize the khilafat, the initiative had now passed to him. His claim to khilafat rested upon the judgment that Amr bin Aas, the “king-maker,” gave in Adhruh.

Amr's judgment was a piece of political legerdemain that would have thrilled Machiavelli but for the Syrians, it had the authority of a fiat from heaven itself, and was, therefore, irreversible.

R. A. Nicholson

It is characteristic of Arabian notions of morality that this impudent fraud was hailed by Muawiya's adherents as a diplomatic triumph which gave him a colorable pretext for assuming the title of caliph. (A Literary History of the Arabs, p.192-193, 1969)

The arbitration turned out to be a farce and a fiasco. Its decision, at any rate, had been ultra vires. No one had given the arbitrators a mandate to pronounce judgment upon the caliphate or to depose or to appoint a caliph. Muawiya's supporters were seeking vengeance for the murder of Uthman. Muawiya had convinced them that Ali was responsible for the death of Uthman, and it was for this reason that they had fought at Siffin. They did not wage a war against Ali to enthrone Muawiya.

But the arbitrators did not investigate the origins of the civil war. They talked only about the caliphate even though it was not the matter in dispute. Their only duty was to find out who had killed Uthman, and if Muawiya had the right to seek vengeance for the crime.

Abu Musa gave his “Jovian” verdict by “deposing” Muawiya. What did the “deposition” of Muawiya mean anyway? And what did he (Abu Musa) depose him (Muawiya) from? Muawiya was not the khalifa, nor had anyone proposed his name for khilafat.

On the other hand, Ali was the lawful khalifa of the Muslims. He was elected by consensus of the Muhajireen and the Ansar, and all parts of the empire, with the solitary exception of Syria, had acknowledged him their sovereign.

As arbitrators, or rather, as king-makers, Amr bin Aas and Abu Musa had engaged in long discussions on politics and war, and perhaps on the future of the Muslim umma but one thing they had not done was to consult Al-Qur’an al-Majid. They had kept Qur’an out of their deliberations in Adhruh just as, many years earlier, their forerunners in king-making, had kept Qur’an out of their deliberations in the outhouse of Saqifa in Medina.

By a strange “coincidence,” all the king-makers of the Arabs, whether in Saqifa, or in the Electoral Committee of Abdur Rahman bin Auf, or in Adhruh, showed themselves “allergic” to Al-Qur’an al-Majid. Or, was it the other way round – Al-Qur’an al-Majid showing itself “allergic” to the king-makers?

The king-makers kept Qur’an out of their deliberations or Qur’an itself stayed out of them – either way, it was truly one of the most fantastic “coincidences” in the history of the Muslims. For some mysterious reason, all the king-makers on the one hand, and Al-Qur’an al-Majid on the other, remained apart and distant from each other.

Amr bin Aas and Abu Musa had to make Qur’an their guide in arbitration. They had a commitment to formulate their decisions in the light of the commandments of the Book of God. The commandment of God in this regard is clear-cut.

O you who believe! Obey Allah, and obey the Apostle, and those charged with authority among you. If you differ in anything among yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Apostle, if you do believe in Allah and the last day: that is best, and most suitable for final determination. (Chapter 4 verse 59)

The arbitrators, it appears, forgot both the commandment of God quoted in the foregoing verse, and their own commitment. But Qur’an did not forget them, and pointed out what they had done or what they had failed to do, in the following verse:

They are invited to the Book of God, to settle their disputes, but a party of them turns back and declines. (Chapter 3 verse 23)

Amr bin Aas and Abu Musa – the arbitrators made themselves a party of those who turn back from the Book of God. They had preferred to be guided by their own lusts, and for this reason, they invited the judgment of Qur’an upon themselves:

And if any do fail to judge by (the light of) what God hath revealed, they are (no better than) unbelievers. (Chapter 5 verse 47)

In the battle of Siffin, the armies of Iraq and Syria faced each other for 110 days. There were 90 engagements between them in which 25,000 Iraqis and 45,000 Syrians were killed.

This ghastly battle was the product of the ambition and the lust for power of Muawiya and Amr bin Aas. Muawiya was the governor of Syria, and was averse to nothing so much as to losing that position. Amr bin Aas was governor of Egypt but had been sacked by Uthman, and was dying to regain his old position. To retain or to regain their positions, both of them were willing to do anything and to pay any price Truth and Justice did not mean anything to them. They could deluge the Dar-ul-Islam with falsehood, and with the blood of the Muslims to realize their own wishes and ambitions.

The “triumvirs” of Basra (the Companions of the Camel), and Muawiya and Amr bin Aas recognized their great opportunity in the murder of Uthman, and they seized it. Vengeance for his blood was the thin veneer which imparted respectability to their naked lust for power. Uthman – dead was far more valuable to them than Uthman – alive.

Therefore, they gave him all the assistance they could – to be dead. But once he was dead, it became lawful, in fact, it became a duty, for them to commit mass murder in the name of seeking vengeance for his assassination.

The battles of Basra and Siffin were the mass murder of the Muslims dictated by the logic of “Realpolitik.”

Toynbee says that Muhammad and Ali were no match for the merchant princes of Makkah (the Umayyads) in realpolitik. In a sense, he may be right. Muhammad and Ali hesitated to kill even an idolater, not to speak of killing a Muslim. They could not kill anyone for the sake of material power. They were, therefore, handicapped in their “competition” with the Umayyads.


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